Who Was Genghis Khan / Mongol Empire?

Who Was Genghis Khan?

Genghis Khan also romanised as Chinggis Khan, was the founder and first khan of the Mongol Empire, which he ruled from 1206 until his death in 1227; it later became the largest contiguous empire in history. After spending most of his life uniting the Mongol tribes, he launched a series of military campaigns, conquering large parts of China and Central Asia.

Real History Of Genghis Khan:

Temüjin formally adopted the title “Genghis Khan”, the meaning of which is uncertain, at a kurultai in 1206. Carrying out reforms designed to ensure long-term stability, he then transformed the Mongols’ tribal structure into an integrated meritocracy dedicated to the service of the ruling family. After thwarting a coup attempt from a powerful shaman, Genghis began to consolidate his power. In 1209, he led a large-scale raid into the neighbouring Western Xia, who agreed to Mongol terms the following year.

He then launched a campaign against the Jin dynasty, which lasted for four years and ended in 1215 with the capture of the Jin capital Zhongdu. His general Jebe annexed the Central Asian state of Qara Khitai in 1218. Genghis was provoked to invade the Khwarazmian Empire the following year following the execution of his envoys; the campaign toppled the Khwarazmian state and devastated the regions of Transoxiana and Khorasan.

While Jebe and his colleague Subutai led an expedition that reached Georgia and Kievan Rus’. In 1227. Genghis died while subduing Western Xia, who had gone into rebellion; following a two-year interregnum, Genghis’s third son and heir Ögedei acceded to the throne in 1229. Born between 1155 and 1167 and given the name Temüjin, he was the oldest child of Yesugei, a Mongol chieftain of the Borjigin clan, and his wife Hö’elün of the Olkhonud clan.

When Temüjin was eight, his father died and his family was abandoned by its tribe. Adopting a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, Hö’elün taught her children to survive. During his childhood, Temüjin killed his half-brother Behter to secure his position. As he grew to manhood, he began to gain followers, and he made alliances with two prominent steppe leaders named Jamukha and Toghrul; they worked together to retrieve Temüjin’s kidnapped wife Börte.  Naiman tribe and executing Jamukha, he was left as the sole ruler in the Mongolian steppe.

He was decisively defeated in c. 1187, possibly spending the following years as a subject of the Jin dynasty; upon reemerging in 1196, he swiftly began gaining power. Toghrul came to view Temüjin as a threat, and launched a surprise attack on him in 1203. Temüjin retreated, then regrouped and overpowered Toghrul; after defeating the Naiman tribe and executing Jamukha, he was left as the sole ruler in the Mongolian steppe.

Temüjin was soon acclaimed by his close followers as khan of the Mongols. Toghrul was pleased at his vassal’s elevation but Jamukha was resentful. Tensions escalated into open hostility, and in around 1187 the two leaders clashed in battle at Dalan Baljut: the two forces were evenly matched but Temüjin suffered a clear defeat. Later chroniclers including Rashid al-Din instead state that he was victorious but their accounts contradict themselves and each other.

Genghis abruptly halted his Central Asian campaigns in 1221. Initially aiming to return via India, Genghis realised that the heat and humidity of the South Asian climate impeded his army’s skills, while the omens were additionally unfavourable. Although the Mongols spent much of 1222 repeatedly overcoming rebellions in Khorasan, they withdrew completely from the region to avoid overextending themselves, setting their new frontier on the Amu Darya river. 

During his lengthy return journey, Genghis prepared a new administrative division which would govern the conquered territories, appointing darughachi (commissioners, lit. “those who press the seal”) and basqaq (local officials) to manage the region back to normalcy. He also summoned and spoke with the Taoist patriarch Changchun in the Hindu Kush.


Genghis insisted that the siege be continued. He died on 25 August 1227, but his death was kept a closely guarded secret and Zhongxing, unaware, fell the following month. The city was put to the sword and its population was treated with extreme savage. the Xia civilization was essentially extinguished in what Man described as “very successful ethnocide. The exact nature of the khan’s death has been the subject of intense speculation.

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